Finance is a broad term that encompasses many things regarding the study, generation, distribution, and allocation of funds. In laymen’s terms, it is all about how money is used and spent. It also involves economic institutions such as banks and other financial institutions and individuals such as business owners, employees, homeowners, investors, government agencies, and even the tax authority. All of these have something to do with the study, generation, allocation, distribution, and monitoring of funds.
The study, generation, distribution, allocation, and monitoring of funds primarily involve the analysis, planning, and the evaluation of financial statements, statistics, and risk factors. At the same time, all of these also involve a process of risk assessment – determining how likely some future event (e.g., inflation) is to occur in the financial sector. This process also involves the utilization of financial instruments such as bonds, securities, equity securities, derivatives, and the various forms of financial products. The distribution of funds is done according to the plans and objectives of the financial system.
The scope and activity of Finance in the United States are staggering. Some large banks, such as Bank of America and Chase Manhattan, engage in extensive activities related to both savings and loans, bank lending, and creating money. Other banks and other financial institutions provide a range of financial services, such as savings and loans, market banking, and the manufacture of credit cards, loans, and securities. Government agencies also engage in some activities of Finance, such as the Federal Reserve, Department of Treasury, Department of Homeland Security, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
The activities of Finance are highly complex and intricate. Therefore, to undertake such a task as managing and /or distributing the funds of the country, an impressive level of talent and experience is required. An excellent knowledge of the statutory laws and the subject matter is very much necessary. The role of the financial analyst is very important. He must be able to interpret and present the data, taking into account all the necessary and extraneous circumstances that may affect the funds of a particular organization or government. An effective financial management team should be formed, consisting of an experienced accountant, a financial consultant, and a money manager.
It is quite interesting to note that Finance is a broad range of activities, which includes all the wide range of activities concerned with the management of the financial systems of a nation or organization. This includes Finance Research, which seeks to understand the processes and procedures used in the financing of a company, including all the steps it takes to raise capital, issue equity, acquire and manage assets, and distribute the profits. It also includes Finance Law, which deals with the regulation of financial activities undertaken by companies and the authorities that protect the interests of the public.
Another aspect of Finance is that it normally deals with the financing of operations and projects by a company. Typically, Finance is needed for mergers and acquisitions, capital budgeting, development of internal structures, acquisitions of firms and divestitures of businesses. In fact, Finance has a crucial role in all of these activities, as it is the major tool for managing financial resources. Today, finance is a key player in shaping the future of financial systems, as it provides and develops the financial tools that help resolve the economic, social, and political problems that arise and thus play a decisive role in the smooth operation of the economy.